1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – a good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care centre
+ 14.8. The engine
+ 14.9. The conditioner
+ 14.11. Three in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. The accumulator
14.13. The generator
14.15. "Automatic machine"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tyres
Your hardware should be faultless – after all time which you have, there is same money which, we hope, at you too is. Do not lose neither that, nor another. If goodness knows where gone tie or burnt by an iron брючина can become the reason of failure of a business meeting that then to speak about the car which does not wish to be got for an hour before the appointed negotiations.
... Early in the morning, just shaved and full of great plans (the child – in school, the wife – in a hairdressing salon, and itself – to forge labour copeck), you jump in the car, "a key on start" and... That for lines... Once more. Still... Nervous manipulations with a key and pedals of success do not bring. Day is spoilt from the very beginning. Plans and mood – are up the spout.
Calm down. It is not necessary to rush in an English suit under a cowl and, smearing a tie oil грязищу, to try to make the diagnosis. For 5 minutes, most likely, do not cure. Take other car, and treatment of the fallen ill friend leave till the evening. And is better you charge to its doctors with good reputation, especially, if at you expensive car, and not спец. So will be cheaper. Well and if your friend is well familiar to you also you consider itself as the healer – well, try if not laziness to be spoilt or an exit of another is not present.
If the starter does not twist at all and at all does not click the traction relay at ignition inclusion, it or is faulty (it is possible to close a cowl and to follow to the council resulted above: "Take other car..." ), or a trouble with the accumulator – it was disconnected or villages. Only in rare models the starter feed circuit can be protected a safety lock – ampere эдак on 300 – it simply to find, especially, if in advance the nobility where it is. If the accumulator thus also all electric equipment, as a rule, does not work is guilty. The elementary and mild case – has flied or one of plugs has become soiled, but the accumulator is perfectly in order. Tighten fastenings of plugs on it and on a starter (if is). If it is found out that the accumulator has completely sat down (have forgotten to switch off for night of a headlight), it is possible to leave nevertheless. But with assistance. Here, as they say, variants are possible. It is possible to try to be got from a push, from a hill or from a tow. Do not try to bypass reefs: the car with an automatic box or electronic injection of fuel (if there an electric gasoline pump) will not manage to be got these ways. It is necessary to get a light from the neighbour. However, at some cars it can lead to computer damages (read the instruction to the car). If a starter twist, but it is languid (business occurs in the summer, it is a subject of separate conversation in the winter), most likely, the accumulator is almost absolutely discharged. It will be visible on weak light of headlights or a sickly signal. The above-stated variants of assistance in this case come into effect.
If the starter twists vigorously, and the engine does not react to attempts it to get, safely exclude from the further reflexions everything connected with the accumulator. Expostulate on system of ignition or fuel giving, will not be mistaken. At statement of the diagnosis and treatment of each of them the system approach is required. To begin better with ignition – there malfunctions happen more often. Especially in crude weather.
So, it is necessary to search for a spark. Your car can be equipped by classical (elementary) contact system of ignition, enough difficult electronic contactless or any combined variant. In any case the system consists of three parts. A part the first – low-voltage (breaker contacts in classical system or the special gauge in electronic, plus a box with the electronic stuffing, forming a spark). A part the second – the raising transformer called in the world by the coil of ignition. A part the third – high-voltage (the mechanical or electronic distributor and wires on which the power-current is brought to candles). And it is natural, candles. Check of all this economy should be spent on stages and is better to begin with the end.
Stage the first. A high-voltage part of system. Check up, whether there is a spark on the central wire is what connects the coil to the distributor. The wire tip needs to be taken out from a distributor cover, to approach to any detail having good contact to weight of the car (it is painted or not, has no value), and to fix so that between a tip and the chosen detail there was a backlash of 5-7 mm.
If ignition at your car electronic, крепить a wire is necessary especially reliably – if falls to weight, electronics will instantly die. For the same reason it is impossible to strike a wire on the case. A hand to hold it too it is not advised, at all the – will fine strike a current.
Stage of the second. Turn the engine a starter. Thus look that occurs on a wire tip. Two variants are possible. More favorable – the spark is. Powerful, accompanied by loud click. It considerably narrows a field of the further searches.
First of all it is necessary to uncover the distributor. Under it it can appear сыро and it is dirty. On such "conductor" the spark willingly slips anywhere, only not there where it is necessary. To wipe, clean and dry up. At the same time harmlessly to clean distributor contacts, for example, a small skin. Examine so-called "бегунок". If on it or on a distributor cover will find out a dark trace of electric breakdown, the detail should be changed.
In the most biassed image check up the wires going from the distributor to candles. Wires and their tips should be dry and pure. If with them, in your opinion, everything is all right, it is possible to put a cover into place, to restore connections and to try to get the engine. If malfunction was concealed under a cover – the engine will be got or, at worst, at least will start to sneeze. A symptom too favorable – you on a right way. However, it is necessary to turn out, clean and dry candles – in attempts to get engine you have filled in with their gasoline. If the engine does not sneeze at all, candles all the same should be turned out, cleaned and checked. Easier if there is a spare complete set.
If you have already reached a stage of a reversing of candles, it is possible to check up effectively enough (and it is effective) all system of ignition as a whole. Having connected to the turned out candles high-voltage wires, collect candles in a bunch as carrots, and wind directly by their carving part with a naked soft wire. Be convinced that the wire has contact to each candle, but does not concern the central electrodes. The free end of a wire connect to weight. Having arranged a bunch of candles in convenient for supervision from salon a place, twist the engine a starter. Thus between electrodes of candles by turns (according to an operating procedure of cylinders) should slip cheerful sparks. If it so all system of ignition is perfectly in order. The engine sound thus will be very unusual – be not frightened, after all it turns with the turned out candles. Long do not twist. Worse if at the second stage of check other variant takes place: sparks between the central wire and "case" are not present. Means, matter is not in high-voltage chains. The further searches will be more difficult, estimate the time and desire. If both that and another available, start the third stage. Check up, whether pressure on the ignition coil moves. It is easy for making a tester and if it is not present, it is possible to use подкапотную a bulb. The pair of wires However, is required to connect it to the coil. In classical system of ignition to connect a bulb it is necessary between weight and an input of a primary winding.
At the third stage as usually, two variants too are possible: pressure on the coil either moves, or is not present. If moves, the coil – breakdown or short short circuit is guilty that, however, happens extremely seldom. The coil should be changed. There is a bad contact in fastening of wires to the coil is more often. Or the same wet dirt on which the spark flows away it is not known where. Sometimes the coil is polished to shine, but under it invisible very narrow strip of a dirt – a quite good conductor remains.
If at the third stage you were convinced that pressure on the coil does not move – electronics or contacts and unreliable connections in a low-voltage part of system of ignition is guilty. With electronics (the switchboard and, less often, the gauge in the distributor case) you will not consult – their diagnostics needs special equipment. It is possible unless to pull a gauge socket on the distributor case – suddenly will help. If at you with classical contact system of ignition, it is possible to search for the car further.
Remove from the distributor a cover and examine breaker contacts – they can be oxidised, especially, if the car some time stood without movement. Contacts need to be cleaned cautiously a thin skin or special надфилем.
Pull the cleaned contacts so that they that became isolated, were disconnected. On them only 12 volt, therefore it is possible to pull pressure fearlessly. If cleaning has not helped also pressure on the coil, still, does not move, once again we advise for a while to finish attempts of resuscitation of the car as complexities further will begin.
If pressure has appeared (at дергании contacts a bulb blinks), restore all unscrewed and disassembled, get the car and, maybe, still will make progress in the affairs. If it is not got, but already at least sneezes – turn out candles and... (Sm.выше).
If at you the car with injection (инжекторной with giving system) fuel – do not touch it (to system). You can come to conclusion only that it has broken: the spark is, fuel approaches – means, it, darling. Treatment only in a hospital. In house conditions and at handicraftsmen to repair it it is useless and even it is harmful.
In the usual carburettor engine the fuel system is easier – a tank, a gasoline pump, a set of pipelines and the carburettor. Here it is possible поковыряться most. First of all it is necessary to be convinced that gasoline arrives in the carburettor. Disconnect a hose from the carburettor and press the lever of manual pumping of fuel. If powerful enough stream of gasoline – all normally has hammered, it is time to pass to the carburettor. Happens so that gasoline to the carburettor moves regularly, but in it for some reason does not arrive. If there is time and desire, remove the air filter then ask somebody to press an accelerator pedal sharply. Or can sharply pull for a rope of a drive throttle заслонки. Thus look in the carburettor from above (air заслонка it is opened, differently will see nothing): if in the first диффузоре there was no gasoline stream – means, in поплавковой to the chamber it is not present. There is no it there because залипла a needle of the valve or (happens not so often) the fuel filter in the carburettor is completely hammered – it is located before поплавковой the chamber. Or jets have got littered. The filter is cleared by a purge, however at absence at you the necessary skills it is better not to contact at all carburettor interiors, to understand with jamming of the needle valve, a contamination of jets and other subtleties – let it experts do.
If the stream in диффузоре is, pay attention to the carburettor starting arrangement – it often enough fails. On foreign cars beginning approximately since 70th years, automatic control air заслонкой is applied. The device without your participation depending on engine temperature closes or slightly opens заслонку it is how much necessary, enriching a mix at engine start-up. If this automatics works, it is possible to try manual manipulations with air заслонкой, but here it is a lot of variants and there are no universal councils. Before the beginning of manipulations connect and fix disconnected earlier fuel hose. The air filter can to be established yet. If it will be got, allow to the engine to get warm and good luck (preliminary having returned into place the air filter). . If at check of giving of fuel by a gasoline pump it will appear that gasoline from a hose does not go or a stream very much жиденькая, it is necessary to search for the reason in the got littered pipelines, the filter of thin clearing of fuel or the petrol tank – you can quite show the мастеровитость, having pumped over a gasoline pipe line шинным the pump in a direction, the return to gasoline movement, i.e. From the carburettor to a tank. In a tank booming, gurgling sounds should be audible.
With the filter of thin clearing of fuel all is simple. Though almost on all modern models it is executed in the transparent case, visually it is impossible to define degree of its impurity. The dirty filter will allow to get the engine, but will not allow to go normally. If it is hammered completely – the engine will not get. The most effective check: to remove the filter and if is not present new, temporarily to replace with its suitable tubule, for example ball pen cases, it is better transparent – it is visible, as gasoline flows. Do not try to clean the filter – soldered (or заклееный) the case does not understand.
If you have come to a conclusion that the fuel pump does not work for your car, and spare near at hand is not present – "Take other car...".
Rare, but we have left the most unpleasant diagnosis at last. If the starter works normally, you have already spent a heap of time and were convinced that ignition and a food in a full order, and the car, nevertheless, is not got – it is necessary to examine a belt of a drive of a camshaft. However, solve, this check can be spent and in the beginning, especially if the engine already has passed more than 60 thousand. Complexity that it is necessary to remove or at least partially to unbend the top part of a plastic casing closing a belt. Probably, at a belt teeths – at belts as at people, a teeth is lost from an old age were cut off. In this case the camshaft does not rotate also the engine will not work. It is clear that the toothless belt demands replacement (at whom the car with a chain drive of a cam-shaft, this trouble does not threaten). Procedure of replacement of a belt is not difficult, but хлопотна. It is carried out in a hospital. It is good, if all is limited to replacement only a belt, instead of погнутых valves or all head of the block – such too happens.
If your accumulator is near death, try not гулшить the engine during time бесчетных stops in a city. Anything so does not force the battery, as frequent using a starter.
And the last (it concerns not only the accumulator, but also all electric equipment as a whole). Remember: all plugs, contacts, tips of wires should be dry and pure and well adjoin to "destinations". Dirty, greasy isolation makes the way sooner or later, and подгорание and oxidation of any contact surface can serve unique (and sufficient) as a cause of a failure of system of ignition. Or a fire.
On it it is possible to stop. Meticulous motorists, undoubtedly, have paid attention to some superficiality of our councils. We admit, we intentionally do not wish to go deep into a jungle. Not to provoke you to self-treatment – it to good does not result. The understanding of the nature of pains in the bottom of a stomach on the right does not mean that you should delete at yourselves an appendix. But to describe to the doctor symptoms of an appendicitis you should precisely. Very much helps treatment.