1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – a good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care centre
+ 14.8. The engine
+ 14.9. The conditioner
+ 14.11. Three in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. The accumulator
14.13. The generator
14.15. "Automatic machine"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tyres
If you yet have not prepared for it the car – hasten. We do not insist on that you carried out all our councils and recommendations independently. If there is no desire to potter – exist service stations and masters-professionals. But you should represent, what exactly is necessary for making with the car, accurately to explain it to the master, and sometimes and to track that all has been made as it is necessary.
On snow and ice in barefoot persons do not go – the car for the winter too should be changed. About winter rubber we wrote repeatedly, therefore we will shortly remind only high lights.
For winter tyres with marks M+S (Mud+Snow – "Grjaz+Sneg"), Winter or W are intended ("Winter"). These inscriptions are sometimes accompanied by pictogrammes in the form of a snowflake or тучки.
It is better to choose tyres already, than by what you go in the summer – naturally, within admissible for your car of a dimensional range. The protector should press through snezhno-mud porridge to a firm covering, and narrow tyres cope with it better.
It is undesirable to go in the winter by all-weather tyres - that are marked by indexes AS (All Seasons – "All seasons") or AW (Any Weather – "Any weather").
"Winter" possibilities at them weak; all-weather in the true sense of the word it is possible to consider them only in the event that it is a question about малоснежной to Europe, instead of of Russia. Told to a lesser degree concerns rubbers for off-road cars. It in all-weather execution it is essential "more winter", than automobile. If at you the off-road car, tyres AS and AW is is comprehensible in the winter. But is, of course, worse, than M+S or Winter.
Shipovannye tyres on ice and on snow hold better, than нешипованные. But on pure asphalt at braking on thorns the probability of blocking of wheels, drift and a brake way increase: steel thorns not bad slide on asphalt. Danger consists also that drivers blindly trust in thorns and, braking on asphalt, expect from them the same death grip, as well as on ice. By the way, нешипованные winter tyres of new generations on a slippery surface behave practically not worse, than шипованные.
Some for the winter put шипованные tyres only on driving wheels. And on the conducted leave... The summer. Do not do so, it is dangerous. On slippery road the probability of a pulling down нешипованной steams of wheels is very great, even in rather harmless situations, – coupling and resistance factors to lateral withdrawal too strongly differ.
Not шипуйте tyres anywhere. It is process responsible, demanding the good equipment and experts. Warped, it is insufficiently or thorns unduly drowned in rubber increase deterioration of the tyre. And, clearly, safety do not promote.
The main problem in the winter – start-up of the cold engine. Is more often it arises at carburettor motors, but in a strong frost it can face and the owner of the car with инжекторным the engine. The reasons are known – the thickened oil, falling of capacity of the accumulator and bad evaporation of gasoline. And accumulators we will consider oils separately, for now – some words about experience of the countries with a frigid climate where prestarting electroheaters – such "кипятильнички" in system of cooling of the engine are widely applied. Has approached on the house or to office, has thrust a plug in the socket, has included the timer... By the necessary time the engine will be heated-up, and some designs provide also salon warming up.
Electric devices of heating are presented some years and in the Russian market. The Finnish heaters which can be completed with timers use the greatest popularity. Cost together with installation – about $250. Approximately for $100 it is possible to get a domestic production heater (for VAZOVSKY models and "Volga"), but the timer for it is not provided.
The basic lack of electroheating consists that at the house or office it is necessary to have a special guard with the socket. It is to Finns well, and at us the corresponding infrastructure if will appear, not soon and not everywhere. Other exit – an independent heater on liquid fuel which too is built in system of cooling of the engine and works by a principle of a water-heating copper. As fuel for it gasoline or solar oil, depending on on what the engine of your car works serves.
In the Russian market independent heaters of manufacture Eberspacher, Webasto, and also products of Shchadrinsky automodular factory (ЩААЗ) are presented.
To establish a heater it is possible at specialised stations which it is already a lot of and in Moscow, and as a whole across Russia. Warming up time – no more than 15 minutes, is thus spent only 200 г gasoline or дизтоплива. Such heaters (besides the timer) can be completed with the remote control device. Cost of an independent heater in the Russian market – about $1000.
The advantage of heating systems consists also that at their application the engine resource increases. For the inquiry: each start-up of the cold motor at temperature 20 ° C is equivalent to run in 800 km. By the way, according to modern views the motor will reach working temperature faster, and its deterioration will be less if after start-up not to be at a stop, and to begin movement as soon as possible, avoiding, of course, excessive loading on the engine.
Oil change usually make in a binding to car run, instead of to a season. But as change oil on the average time in half a year why not to make it on the threshold of winter?
The overwhelming majority of modern engine oils – to some extent – all-weather. It is considered, it is necessary what to fill in that is offered the manufacturer in the car maintenance instruction. But winters happen different – both sljakotno-warm, and jadreno-frosty. And it is absolutely not clear, whether the manufacturer assumed that its car will be maintained in the conditions of the Russian winter, and that oil is required to it "more coldly".
If you have decided to deviate the instruction, at an oil choice it is possible to use simple reception of definition of its temperature suitability – for secure. We name this reception "a rule 35".
The designation of a class of its viscosity should enter into engine oil marks on scale SAE. For example: 15W–40. It means that the given oil on viscosity at minus temperatures meets the requirements shown to winter oils of a class 15W, and at плюсовых – to summer oils of a class 40.
Remember number 35. If from it to subtract "a winter" index of a class of viscosity, in our example it is 15 the size named in limiting temperature прокачиваемости will turn out, i.e. Temperature at which oil still keeps fluidity.
35 – 15 = 20. Means, oil 15W–40 can use at temperatures to–20 ° C.
Accordingly, the the less "winter" index of a class of viscosity, the oil is colder". 10W – to–25 ° C; 5W – to–30 ° C.
It also is "a rule 35". Simple and useful.
Has struck a frost, and the accumulator still yesterday vigorously twisting a starter, refuses to do it flatly. Anything surprising – when you charged its last time?
If the accumulator youngish (to 3Р4 years) on the threshold of winter it needs to be washed up outside to clear plugs and completely to charge – if the car it was constantly maintained in a city, the battery charge is for certain far from the nominal. If the accumulator old and to nominal capacity is not charged, change without meditations, differently in the winter it for certain will bring you – capacity and so strongly falls with temperature fall, and here also the raised power consumption – a heater, heating of seats, light, yard keepers, a heater of back glass...
By the way, on responses of experts, average duration of "a high-grade life" accumulator makes about twelve months, gradual withering further begins. And the peak of sales стартерных batteries, according to sellers, is necessary just for the autumn.
Times when the automobile owner was knocked down in search of the new accumulator, have passed for a long time – from a variety of trade marks and models on regiments of shops рябит in eyes. What to choose – the private affair of everyone. We will notice only that in the market now it is possible to allocate two price groups – batteries in cost over $60 (usually to $100), for example, "Bosch", "Steco", "American", "Fiamm", and accumulators under the price below $60 ("Mutlu", "Inci", "Centra", "SAEM" etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are defined by more perfect technology of their manufacture. These accumulators, as a rule, concern a category of the unattended. Special types of electrolits and tight execution of such batteries increase a resource of their operation and provide high стартерные the currents guaranteeing проворачиваемость of the engine even at strong frosts. Leading manufacturers without fail use now technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand periodic service – checks of density of electrolit and measurement of its level. We will remind that the density of electrolit for the winter period should be not more low 1,29.
Often at purchase of the new battery try to choose in its capacity more if only has got on the place taken away for it. But capacity – not the main thing. Where it is more important стартерный a current which is provided with the battery. After all even at the accumulator with the big capacity this indicator (because of the big own resistance) can appear more low, than at the accumulator with smaller capacity. Besides, for the battery with большей in capacity higher current of the additional charge is required, which generator of your car will not provide, and the battery while in service will be discharged more and more that is pitiable will affect term of its service.
By the way, if buy the battery different from regular, pay attention to an arrangement of its conclusions – accumulators come across to "return polarity" which plugs of a wire of your car can and not reach.
If at you the new car of foreign manufacture, moreover with инжекторным the engine, it is possible not to read further. But if the car second-hand, with the carburettor motor – then business another. Actually, power supply systems and ignitions among themselves are not connected. But on modern engines with injection you will not meet приснопамятного the mechanical distributor, breaker contacts. And on carburettor – as much as necessary. And not to potter then on a frost, contacts should be cleaned, a distributor cover – too (and it is better to replace). Even better – to replace classical system of ignition on electronic (if still there were automobile owners who have not made it).
Do not forget about high-voltage wires. After driving couple of years on our "salty" roads they are desirable for changing, and it is better – on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to differences of temperatures. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often is at the bottom of absence of a spark is not formed. By the way, corrosion or a bad inhaling of storage plugs can be the banal reason of malfunctions of ignition.
Separately – about candles. Usually them change through 15-20 thousand kilometres, i.e. Time in one and a half year (we do not take supermodern, maintaining 100 thousand in km and more). It is not necessary to save on candles – to calcinate, clean and regulate backlashes. Change at least once a year it it is inexpensive. Also put new on the threshold of winter. Fuel system
Quite often it is at the bottom of unsatisfactory work of the engine during winter time. And all – because of the water condensate which has accumulated in a fuel tank. If in a tank there is a drain stopper, water can be merged simply if is not present – to "neutralise", having applied so-called "вытеснители a moisture". Almost all leading manufacturers of auto chemical goods who are present in the Russian market (STP, Loctite, WynnХs, Aspokem), offer similar preparations which are filled in in a fuel tank and gradually clear the power supply system.
To the superfluous will not put the new filter of thin clearing of fuel, to clean the carburettor and if the motor has injection system – to be convinced of cleanliness of injectors.
To owners of diesel foreign cars, especially if the car was maintained earlier in the country with a soft climate, it is necessary to take care of equipment of fuel system by special devices of heating. Practice shows what to get the diesel motor at–20 ° With happens difficultly as fuel loses fluidity (how much "winter" solar oil which at us is on sale in the winter is – it is possible to guess only). One of effective measures – application warmed up топливоприводов and filters. Thus to start up the diesel motor it is possible even at–40 ° for S.Podogrev it is carried out by elements which eat from the regular accumulator.
The current consumed by them makes nearby 5А, inclusion of heaters for 5–10 minutes practically does not affect accumulator capacity.
Winter – not the best season for the car, especially at movement on the streets plentifully strewed by salt. During this period the body in the maximum degree is exposed to corrosion, and its anticorrosive processing is rather desirable. However, according to employees of some authorised services-centres, for a number of new foreign cars, especially – with the zinced body, it is quite enough factory processing. But if at you, say, new Skoda (not to mention domestic легковушках) experts recommend to spend full anticorrosive processing of the bottom, wheel arches and the latent cavities of a body.
Not out of place will be also installation подкрылков.
Cost of a complex of these services on the average makes $250-300 and depends, basically, from a kind of applied protective preparations. Them in our market it is now presented much. But first of all it is necessary to pay attention, probably, on what are applied in the countries with a climate similar to ours. It can be Finnish Mercasol AL with aluminium additives, Swedish Noxudol on the metallized basis, Canadian Rust stop or Tektyl.
Anticorrosive processing demands technology strict observance and though almost all manufacturers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, all the same it is more preferable to make processing in the specialised service centre. It is necessary to find out in advance, on what technology it is made. In any case before sheeting drawing on the bottom and arches the car should be cleared of a dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
As you do processing by an anticorrosive mixture for some years, it is better поприсутствовать near the car and personally to observe this process.
Winter – hard test and for a paint and varnish covering of a body. Sharp differences of temperatures, snow mixed up with salt, an ice crust – all it leads to occurrence of microcracks on a paint. The body surface can be protected special structure, suitable for use at low temperatures, for example, Plus Teflon or Color Magic. Processing by these preparations spend to once a month – after obligatory washing of the car and its drying.
Question on where to hold the car in the winter, actually usually it is not necessary – at whom the garage is, at whom is not present – in the street hold it in garage. Strangely enough, from the point of view of safety of a body (from corrosion, not from theft), between trips and for the night it is better to leave the car in the street – at a cold body corrosion process goes more slowly. In cold garage of heat allocated with the car suffices on that it a few to warm, and the melted snow with salt some time actively do the dirty deed. Well, and in warm garage even if you have carefully washed the car from salt from below, it will stand all night long the wet...
Visibility is not only comfort, but also safety. Therefore hardly it is necessary to remind that screen wipers, having blown and heating of glasses should be serviceable. The brushes leaving on glass matte strips, throw out safely. And buying new, try to choose firm – Bosch, ITE, Champion... Inhabitants of northern regions can try brushes with heating which are connected to an onboard network, – they have appeared not so long ago on sale.
One more element of active safety – lateral rear-view mirrors. In their winter daily it is necessary to clear of an ice crust or snow. Their initial installation that delivers additional efforts thus gets off. In the presence of superfluous $250 you can establish mirrors with electroheating and the electric drive which will make dialogue with the car more pleasant.
Now it is direct about glasses. Their survey is better for entrusting the expert, but also the personal control will not prevent. After all even small скол on a windshield in the first frost after an autumn rain will turn to a high-grade crack. Existing technologies of repair allow to eliminate similar defect without glass removal. It is easier and cheaper, than replacement has flown down – repair (crack removal) 10 sm will manage in the length in $50, and new glass and its "insert" – at least in $350.
One more "winter" problem – запотевание glasses. At serviceable system of ventilation arises seldom, but... Application of liquids-antizapotevatelej, for example, Anti-Fog or Never Fog which it is enough to put on glass of times in a week Helps.
All account materials, including antifreeze and hydraulic liquids in a drive of brakes and couplings, have the service life. If arise though the slightest doubts – it is not necessary to select a portion of the antifreeze which has grown brown or become green from an old age from a radiator and to put it on test in a deep-freezer. Replace antifreeze. Also do not save, buying doubtful preparations without labels and certificates – will more expensively manage.
Not less carefully it is necessary to approach and to a choice of nonfreezing washers of glasses. It in a countryside at–20 ° – dry and pure snow under wheels. And in Moscow even in a strong frost – a dirty fat swill which brushes willingly smear on glass, transforming into an opaque whitish film. Therefore a liquid stock in a washer tank – an indispensable condition of safe driving. But buying a liquid with freezing temperature–20 ° With, be not under a delusion and do not take in head to dilute it even if in the street–10 ° S.Praktika shows that on the move liquids with freezing temperature–40 ° With stiffen on a windshield even in десятиградусный a frost if glass not to warm (again to a question on serviceability of system of ventilation and heating).
Nonfreezing liquids for a washer, as a rule, contain additives which effectively delete a dirt and clear glass. Some of them, the truth, unduly foam, but also they it is much better, than cheap vodka which last winter many preferred to pour in a tank. From it only a smell in salon fighting, and it cleans glass badly...
Well, here, perhaps, and all. If you execute at least a part of these recommendations, your car will feel better in this winter. And you together with it.