1990-1997 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 3.2. Diesel engines
+ 3.3. Removal and a partition of engines
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Systems of start, ignition
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension brackets, a steering
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.1.1. Changed numbers
14.1.2. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.2. Durability of the car
14.3. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.4. Preparation of the car for winter
14.5. It is not got – a good advice
14.6. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
14.7. Visit to car-care centre
+ 14.8. The engine
+ 14.9. The conditioner
+ 14.11. Three in one – or how to save the catalyst
+ 14.12. The accumulator
14.13. The generator
14.15. "Automatic machine"
+ 14.16. Brake system
+ 14.17. Wheels and tyres
доставка брускетты сколько стоит открыть барбершоп с нуля
That the bought car did not become your headache and разорительницей the family budget, it is necessary to concern its acquisition with all gravity and responsibility, without having regretted neither time, nor money.
First of all, understand, that you want. If the comfort is necessary to you, buy the car of a representation class and if you want that the put up money had material expression, buy American "cruiser" as its price will not frighten you, and the big consumption of fuel will be compensated by low working costs. If you the fan of distant trips and family rest on a nature bosom, the versatile person – that is necessary for you, and, believe, your choice will not disappoint you. It is convenient, capacious and modern.
To stop the choice is better by the car of middle class with a body of type "LX" / "GL", they are well equipped and are in demand, but not be touched and do not spread additional money for the various additional equipment from which the hydraulic booster of a wheel and the hatch in a roof are really valuable only. Automatic transmissions can become the reason of reduction of price at resale, especially at small cars.
So, with model you were defined. Now, without hurrying up, start car survey.
First of all, attentively study registration documents: how many was owners, whether registration and identification numbers of the car coincide with numbers in documents? Under the car passport be convinced that checkups were spent also it is noted by the corresponding guarantee seals. Check up authenticity of the tablet with identification number (the bent ends of the tablet both new and pure rivets – the signal of that not everything is all right, and is better to refuse the further survey). If everything is all right, safely move further and start external survey.
Examine the car at natural illumination, instead of in garage or a motor show so you can notice many distinctions of colour shades.
Main point – whether there was a car in failure? If it costs on all четырх wheels, there are no badly adjusted panels, distinctions in shades of a paint and traces шпаклевки, longerons not погнуты, centering of a bumper and headlights is not broken, there are no traces of old licence plate, means, the car has avoided failure, and repair was not made earlier.
If you unbend уплотнители windows and compare colour under them to colour of the car you learn, whether the car has been recoloured. Will pay also attention to painting traces under arches, doors, suspension bracket details.
Colouring of electroconducting and hoses in an impellent compartment under colour of a body – a sign of negligent repair.
About that looked after car, to you liquids and the pure engine oil, filled on level will tell.
Such insignificant details as the worn out protectors or погнутые disks will enough cost much at replacement.
Easily give out itself the given seats in the salon, the worn out rugs and an upholstery, scratches, knock and not clear smells, presence of a rust and dampness in a luggage carrier. All is signs of a long life, and to get rid of them expensively enough.
Do not forget to check up work of the central blocking, antifog headlights, электроGlass lifts. Expensive repair of trifles to you to what.
Having shaken wheels in a vertical plane and having considered deterioration drawing on each tyre, you will check up deterioration of a basic part of wheels and much learn about a condition of a suspension bracket and steering system.
Rock the car from each corner. So you will check up serviceability of shock-absorbers and stability of position of the car on all four wheels, especially, if it is the versatile person or the car equipped with the towing device.
After external survey start check of the basic mechanisms.
At the cold engine check up automatic air заслонку and start of the engine with fuel injection. Any engine including diesel, should not rustle and quickly passes to a quiet course.
At разогретом the engine, moving on small speed by high transfer, check up deterioration of a cranked shaft and bearings. Громыхания should not be. Check up deterioration of a surface of cylinders and valves, operating throttle заслонкой. If there was a dark blue smoke – serious repair of the engine, a black smoke – a sign of a deterioration of atomizers and problems with a fuel mix is required.
The temperature gauge should work reliably at any change of conditions (for example, in an operating time idling). Do not forget to be convinced that the electrofan is disconnected in time.
After a warming up the engine should work silently and smoothly, even a diesel engine. Lungs постукивания specify in deterioration of a drive of valves or a camshaft. From the hot, idling engine, uncover mouths and check up on дымление and a deposit. Check up also presence of leaks. The alarm bulb of pressure of oil usually should not burn. If it not so she specifies in deterioration krivoshipno-shatunnogo the mechanism or маслонасоса.
First of all, check up coupling. Try to get under way on high transfer at rigidly put manual brake. The engine should decay at once. Then check up coupling capture. If it occurs at the very end of a pedal course, it speaks about deterioration of coupling.
Transfer change should be assured, and transmission work should be silent.
Automatics should work smoothly and very precisely: if the transmission does not wish to be switched smoothly upwards its deterioration or bad adjustment is probable. Check up, whether the switch with normal on a sports mode correctly works. Transmissions by all-wheel drive cars at movement should work especially smoothly though on some models it is necessary to expect some "sagging". Check up oil level in automatic gearbox. If it low or a box absolutely dry, we advise to you to stop the further survey of this car. Repair of automatic transmissions is labour-consuming also roads.
It is necessary to pass not less than 30 km on different roads to reveal all lacks of the car.
Be cautious: if the car wags or leaves aside, at the best is a wrong disorder-convergence, in the worst – погнуты suspension bracket or steering details.
Checking presence люфта, shake a wheel in the parties. In the presence of the hydraulic booster of a wheel do not forget to be convinced that it is reliable at different speeds and loadings. By cars with a forward drive turn out a wheel on the maximum corner to check up degree of deterioration of spherical support of equal angular speeds that is defined on клацающему to a sound.
The roar or swimming specify in deterioration of shock-absorbers and springs. Check up electronic adjustment of shock-absorbers on different modes.
Attentively check up brakes at different efforts. If the car leaves aside it can be залипающий a support. The pedal going by pushes specifies in deterioration of disks. Check up also antiblocking system of brakes (at movement the alarm bulb should not light up, and at start – on the contrary).
Having checked up thus the darling, well think, whether there correspond your impressions to the specified run and, having weighed all pro's and con's, dare. The qualified realised choice – a guarantee of that the car becomes your assistant and the friend.
Some more councils...
Once in all managements on purchase of cars it was specified that deterioration of rubber of a pedal is a good indicator of size of run. Today this defect too well-known to trust, after all rubber of pedals is easy for changing.
The upholstery in modern cars is much more durable, than established ten years ago, but all the same the place of the driver wears out first of all. Examine external edge (it rubs when the driver enters and leaves the car) – on it the age of the car is defined.
Check up work and a condition of all lamps and other electric devices. Are especially important burst рассеиватели headlights – some of them can cost very expensively.
The tyre cover condition is a good indicator of run – the declared 40 000 km at unpaired tyres cause strong suspicion! It is possible to consider also replacement cost, especially in a case низкопрофильных and other special tyre covers.
From a place of the driver check up work of devices and controls – dangling handles, as well as a smooth surface of a rim of a steering wheel, specify in the big run.